Denizli is an industrial city in the southwestern part of Anatolia Peninsula and in the southeast of the Aegean Region. Denizli is a gateway between the Aegean and  Mediterranean Regions. Denizli also has territory on both regions. The province lies between 28°30’ and 29°30’ east longitude and 37°12’ and 38°12’ of north latitude. Denizli is bordered by Muğla, Aydın, Manisa, Uşak, Afyon and Burdur provinces.  Denizli’s total land area is 11.692 km2 and is 428 m above sea level. It is very famous with textile and industrial productions and rooster.


Origin Of Name

       
Denizli has abundant water sources. There are many beautiful ponds. Because of the similarities of water to sea water this province was named the Denizli. Evliya Çelebi in his book of travels stated that ‘Kesir-i tülenha olmağula Denizli’. Meaning that it was called Denizli because of its abundant water supply. This a true expression. From other expressions the petition of Turkoman nomadics to converted Denizli into a Turkish city. Within the length of time Tonguzlu was called Dengiz and later Denizli. Former names were Laodikeia and Tonguzlu. Germiyanoğulları called it Tonguzluk.


Population

        According to the census in the year 2009 Denizli’s total population is 926.362. 462.914 of the population are men, 463 448 are women. Besides the center Denizli has 18 districts, 87 municipalities and 358 villages. The central population in the districts and city is 488.768,  29.143 in the towns and villages.


Denizli`s Movies And Series

 Governor (Vali)
 Hazel Grouse (Çil Horoz)
 On the Edge of Life (Yaşamın Kıyısında)
 Japanese Bride (Japonyalı Gelin)
 Borrowed Bride (Eğreti Gelin)
 Introduction FIlm of Denizli (Denizli Tanıtım Filmi)
 Film of Denizli Municipality (Denizli Belediyesi Filmi)
 Pamukkale the White Dream (Beyaz Düş Pamukkale)
 

Climate

        Denizli is located in the Aegean Region of Turkey. The Aegean climate is not same in the whole province. A terrestrial climate may be felt in the center of the province because the area is in the passage waw from seaside to inland areas. Denizli’s mountains are generally perpendicular to the sea, so the land is open to winds coming from Aegean Sea. Winters are rainy and mild. The average temperature per year is 15.8 C,
 

Geographical Structure

        Denizli Province has a fluctuating structure. Low and high plains, plateaus and mountains complete each other. The Land is higher then sea level. The lowest point to the sea is Sarayköy Town (170 m above sea level). Denizli 428 m, Buldan 609 m, Güney 800 m, Çal and Çardak 850 m, Acıpayam and Tavas 950 m, Çivril 975 m, Kale 1000 m and Çameli 1359 m. Lower parts: Böceli, Goncalı, Sarayköy and Denizli Plains with Buldan’s Büyük Menderes Valley.
Denizli center is located on the north hillside of Mountain Karcı and on sloping land and these hills separate Denizli from the low plains in Çürüksu Valley.
 

Mountains

Honaz Mount:
It’s altitude is 2571 m. It’s located in southeast of Denizli. The slopes are steep. Honaz Mount is the highest mount in the province. It’s under governmental protection as a National Park. 

 





Karcı Mount:
It’s located in south of Denizli. The peak of this mount is Gökbel Top (2308 m.)

 





Sazak Mount:
The altitude of Sazak is 1143 m. It’s at the border of Çal, Çivril, Sarayköy and Buldan towns.


 




Beşparmak Mount: It’s altitude is 1307 m. Beşparmak separates Çardak, Baklan, Çivril towns with Afyon and Denizli Provinces borders.

Maymun Mount: It’s in the north of Çardak town and altitude from the sea is 1733 m.

Elma Mount: It’s altitude is 1805 m. Elma mount is the border of Denizli-Burdur and includes Söğüt Mounts.

Büyük Çökelez Mount: It extends from the east of Saraköy plain to Çal town. It encompasses the north side of Pamukkale. It’s altitude is 1840 m.


 



Kızılhisar Mount: It’s altitude is 2241 m. and located between Serinhisar and Tavas towns.

 

 



Burgaz (Bulkaz) Mount: In the north of Çivril. It’s altitude is 1990 m. 

Eşeler Mount: In the east of Acıpayam plain. It’s altitude is 2254 m.
 

Sandıras Mount: It’s altitude is 2294 m. Mount extends from Beyağac town to Muğla Köyçeğiz. It’s also known as Gölgeli Mount.


 



Babadağ Mount:
It’s 2308 m. high and extends from south to west.

Bozdağ Mount: It’s between Acıpayam-Gireniz Valley and Tavas Barza Plains. Mount is 2421 m. high.


Akdağ Mount: Akdağ Mount is the second highest mountain in the Denizli Province. It extends between Denizli-Afyon borders. The altitude is 2449 m.

 
 



Kargın Mount:
 

 

 




Plains

Çürüksu and Denizli Plains: Plain starts from Çömleksaz village, continues under Pamukkale and mixes with Büyük Menderes (Sarayköy) plain. Çürüksu River waters these plains. Surface area is 150 km2, the altitude is changes from 100 to 600 m. Cotton, wheat and maize grow in Çürüksu plain.  

Büyük Menderes and Sarayköy Plains: Is surrounded by Honaz Mount in the east, Çökelez Mount in the north and northeast, Sazak Mount in northwest and Babadağ in the south and southwest. Büyük Menderes River waters this plains. Surface area is 200 m2, the altitude changes from 70-500 m. Cotton, wheat and maize are grown in Büyük Menderes and Sarayköy Plains.

Tavas Plain: Tavas takes place in the northeast, Kale districts is in the southwest of this plain. The surface area is 300 km2, the altitude from sea is 950 m. There are no rivers, except some little streams. It’s mostly arid therefore wheat, tobacco and chickpea are grown.

Kaklık Plain: It’s extends from the north of Honaz Mount to the east.  The surface is 60 km2, 600 m. high. There is agricultural water. Cotton and wheat are the most widely grown products.

Hanabat Plain: It’s in the west of Acıgöl. Its surrounded with Maymun Mount in the north and Söğüt Mount in the south. The most grown product is wheat.

Acıpayam Plain: It extends from the east of Tavas, end of Serinhisar district and Kızılhisar Mount. It’s surface is 443 km2, 850 m. high. In the 1950`s this plain was infertile and full of marshes. In years to follow the marches were dried. Now this plain watered by the Dalaman River. Products such as wheat, tobacco and chickpeas are grown.

Çivril and Baklan Plains: It extends from Yorga in the north, Bozdağ and Beşparmak Mounts in the south, Akdağ in east, Çökelez Mount in west. Çivril and Baklan is watered by the Büyük Menderes River. Surface is 920 km2, the altitude is 850 m. Wheat and chickpeas are grown. 



Plateaus

Yukarı-Aşağı Erikli Plateau: 10 km. from Honaz. The land is flat and completely surrounded by pine trees.


 





Lala Bağlar Plateau: 3 km. from Honaz. Plateau is narrow and covered by pine forests. 




 

Süleymanlı Plateau: Connects to Buldan district by 8 km. asphalt road. It’s on large flat area. Plateau is completely covered with reeds and has a big lake. There is 30 year-old hotel with 8 rooms on the lakeside. Plateau is covered by pine trees and are low mountains.

 




Taşdelen Plateau:
It’s 5 km. from Babadağ and 20 km. from Sarayköy. Plateau is connected by gravel road. There is ‘Attuda’ archaic city in Hisarköy. There is 20km. between Plateau and city of Aphrodisias. Plateau has rolling hills and covered by pine, chestnut and walnut trees.



 

Yatağan Kefe Plateau: It’s 12 km. from Yatağan. Has a camping ground in which people can establish tents for accommodation. The part of Yatağan (knife) Bıçakçılık Festival is held there. Plateau has abundant water sources and covered with forests. 

 



 

Topuklu Plateau: It’s about 15 hectares. Topuklu plateau is famous for stately trees, air, cold and quality drinking water sources. It’s suitable for daily picnic and camping. Plateau is 20 km. away from town center. Altitude is about 1700 m. It’s very pleasantly to watch the sunset in the summer months and Gökova gulf from the west hills of plateau. Beyağac Topuklu Plateau is illuminated by solar energy.

 


Karagöz Plateau:
Karagöz is located in Çameli district. There is Kapuz Cave. Plateau has abundant water sources and surrounded by pine trees.

 



 

Lakes

Acı Lake (Çardak Lake): It’s a tectonicly formed lake. Located between Çardak and Afyon-Dazkırı towns and surface area is 41.34 km2 . The creeks, which originate from Söğüt mounts feed the lake. This lake also called bitter salt lake. It’s altitude is 836 m. There are potassium, sodium and sulfide minerals.
 




Beylerli (Çaltı) Lake:
This lake isn’t deep. The deepest part is only 4 meters. It’s 20 km. on the southwest of Acı Lake. The altitude is 850 m. This lake is feed by Değirmendere and Başpınar creeks. There aren’t any fish in lake.







Karagöl:
The total area is 0.20 km2 and 1250 m. high. A crater lake, which feeds by creeks. The lake is located above Çambaşı village-Bozkurt, between pine trees. The water of this lake is tasty.






Süleymanlı Lake:
It’s surface area is 1.05 km2 and 1150 m high. Lake is in the borders of Buldan town and Sazak plain. The water is fresh and is the camping place for tourist. People can hunt there.







Işıklı Lake:
The total area of this lake is 65.87 km2 and altitude is 814 m. The deepest part is 8 m. This lake is feed by Çivril town’s Işıklı creeks and Küfi River. The Işıklı dam was constructed for water controls. The water is fresh and there is roach.





Kartal Lake:
It’s located in the south of Beyağaç town, and in the north side of Çiçekbaba Mount’s Peak. It’s 1903 m. high. Kartal Lake and surrounding area is protected by Forest Ministry’s General Directorate of Wild Animals and National Parks and was declared as a Natural Protected Area. The oldest black pine forest of Turkey`s is located here. The ages of these trees range from 850 to 1300 years. 
 


Yukarı Dağdere (Saklıgöl) Lake: It’s on the border of Yukarı Dağdere Village and Honaz town. This lake is surrounded by pine trees. The water is very fresh and fish can be found.
 







Rivers

Büyük Menderes: Total length is 529 km. 194 km. in length within the Denizli Province borders. Water flow is 44.32m3/sec.

 





Banaz River:
It’s length is 170 km. River’s length inside the province is 13 km. Güney town’s electricity is supplied by this river. The people of Güney call it “Mill River”, because many small water mills are working within the environment .   

Çürüksu: River’s total length is 101 km. It’s length inside the province is 96 km.Water flow is 9.26m3/sec. The meaning of the river is ‘rotten water’, due to rich calcium hydro carbonate. In summer months the water decreases. 

Akçay (Bozdoğan) River: It’s length is 157 km. River’s length inside the province’s border is 70 km, water flow is 17.37m3/sec. It sources are from Bozdağ and Sardraz Mounts and irrigates Eskere and Bozdoğan Plains.

Dalaman (Gireniz) River: River’s length is 201 km. The length inside the province’s border is 81 km. Water flow is 17.37 m3/sec. It is fed by under ground waters. After Acıpayam Plain’s edge the Dalaman River flows through Gireniz Mountain Pass. It pours into the Mediterranean Sea after it passing through borders of Muğla and Köyceğiz.

Küfi River: It’s length is 97 km, length inside the province’s border is 32 km and water flow is 3.34m3/sec. River pours into Büyük Menderes. 

Hamam River: It’s length is 48 km. length inside the province is 32 km.

Gökpınar River: It’s length inside the province is 38 km and water flows 2.86m3/sec. The River starts 10km. northeast of Tavas town and ends in 9 km. north of Denizli. River pours into Çürüksu.

Yeni Dere: River’s inside length within the province is 70 km and water flow is 2.46m3/sec. It’s 2 km. west of Karakaya Village of Kale town. It pours into Akçay.

Derbent River: River’s length inside the province is 32 km and water flow is 1.00 m3/sec. It starts 6 km. west of Buldan and pours into Alaşehir River, which in 16 km. north of Buldan town.


Thermal Waters


Akköy – Gölemezli Thermal Mud:
Located in Gölemezli town. This Thermal mud is very useful for such illness as Skin, Psoriasis, Mycosis, Eczema, Hemorrhoid, Calcification and Rheumatic diseases.
 



Çizmeli (Yenice) Thermal Waters:
It’s about 16 km. from the Buldan town. Water temperature is 56oC. Thermal is useful for Rheumatic diseases, Heart- Arteriosclerosis, Hemorrhoid, Cirrhosis, Skin, Stomach, Kidney and Gynecological diseases.





Karahayıt Thermal Water:
This Thermal is the one branch of Pamukkale Thermal Water system. It’s located 5 km. north of Pamukkale in Karahayıt town and could eliminate Neurological illness, Very useful for Heart-Arteriosclerosis, Hypertensions, Rheumatism-Sciatic, Skin, Lumbago treatments and also helps to eliminate scabies,  pustule and pruritus. 



Pamukkale Thermal Waters:
It’s 18 km. away from Province center and located in Hierapolis Ancient City. The city contains hot springs and travertines, terraces of carbonate minerals are left by the flowing water.





Babacık (Kabaağac) Thermal Water:
It’s located in Kabaağaç village of Sarayköy town.
 

Kızıldere Spa: This spa in 11 km. from Sarayköy town. And this thermal water comes from red-colored rocks.  It’s useful for rheumatism and weariness.


Culture And Tourism


Waterfalls

Güney Waterfall: Güney Waterfall is located in Cindere Village, Güney District, Denizli. It’s on Menderes river, about 4 km. south of Güney District. People should see a natural beauty of this waterfall.
 






Sakızcılar Asmaaltı Waterfall:
Sakızcılar Asmaaltı Waterfall is located in Sakızcılar Village of Çal district. This waterfall is a natural beauty. The other name of the Waterfall`s is Crying Rock (Ağlayan Kaya). The water falls from 30 m. height. There are fish in the bottom of waterfall, where the water is combined with greenery. This place which is called ‘Hocanın Yeri’, is the popular picnic area for the local people.


 

Homa (Gümüşsu) Waterfall: It’s located on Çivril-Dinar road, in south side of Çivril. This Waterfall is name is Gümüşsu because of the good quality of the water. There is a historical area – the battle field of crusade which is named Miryakefalon in Düzbey Village of Gümüşsu town. The water is very cold and fresh. 







Caves


Kaklık Cave:
Found on Denizli-Ankara highway, 30 km. away from Denizli Province in Kaklık town of Honaz district.  Cave is adorned with dripstones, stalactites and stalagmites. Travertines and pools are similar to Pamukkale.  The other name of Kaklık Cave is ‘Small Pamukkale’ or ‘Pamukkale Cave’. Thermal waters are abundant in this cave. Water, which is clear, colorless and odor of sulfur, is useful for skin disease.



Alacain Cave:
Located in Acıpayam district. This cave has been declared as Archeological Protected Area by Izmir Association for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage.






Keloğlan (Dodurgalar) Cave:
Dodurgalar Cave is located on the east shoulder of Mallı Mount, which is 3 km. west of Dodurgalar town and 18 km. away from Acıpayam district. Stalactites, stalagmites, columns and covering dripstones had converted this cave into Dripstone Forest.






Çakırlar Village’s Cave:
It’s located in Çakırlar village of Çal district. Natural Cave has been found in travertine quarry. During travertine extracting from cave a deep crack has occurred inside and outside of the cave.These cracks could be seen in and out of cave.





Aslanini Cave:
It’s in Karadağ in Acıpayam district’s Dodurgalar town.

Teresuyu Cave: It’s in Akdağ Mount’s foothills 1600-1700 m. high. The length is approximately 10x15 meters. There are stalactites and stalagmites.

Akkale Cave: It’s in Akkale in Çivril district’s Homa town. The length is 40 meter. There are water drops.

Merdivenli Kuyu Cave: It’s located in Büyük Malda in Çal district’s Belevi village. 

İncilipınar Cave: In Köprü location in Babadağ district’s İncilipınar village. 

Köy Çukuru Cave: It’s in Tavas district’s Kozlar village.

Öğle Kayası Cave: It’s near Pınarlar town of Tavas district. The cave is 15 meters width, but the depth is unknown. 

Karabey İni Cave: It’s near Büyük Menderes river in Güney district’s border. 

Çakıroluk Cave: It’s near Kızılcabölük town of Tavas district.

Eski Kale Cave: This cave located in Eski Kale location of Kale district. 

Kapuz Cave: İt’s located on Karkın Mount on Karagöz Plateau Çameli district’s Gürsü village. This cave is between 2 high hills.


Historical Silk Road

      The development of the tourism sector plays an important role in the world economy within the last years. The Ministry of Tourism continues studies in order to increase the tourism potential and to investigate all existing natural and cultural values of the countries regions.
One of the most important tasks of the Ministry of the Tourism is to gain to the tourism sector Silk Road-Caravansaries. Today Silk Road is an extraordinary historical and cultural value. Silk Road is not only the trade road which connects Europe to Asia, but also carries the traces of cultures, religions and races existing within the region for 2000 years.
Silk Road had not only cultural and historical value but was the trade road for Turkish Republics in Central Asia after their independence. Therefore, studies were made concerning Caravansaries and 11 Caravansaries were determined in which two are situated in Denizli.


Ak Han Caravansary

 Ak Han Caravansary is located on the Denizli-Afyon Highway at the entrance of Ak Han Village. It`s the one of the last caravnasaries of the Anatolian Seljuk’s on the west. There are two inscriptions. The construction of of the Han which is closed was completed in 1253. The courtyard has been completed in 1254. Ak Han was built by Governor Seyfettin Karasungur bin Abdullah. II Izzetin Keykavus`s name is mentioned in the inscriptions. Caravansary consists of open and closed sections. The total area of the Ak Han is 1100 m2. It has a square courtyard and rectangular hall.
The entrance to the building`s courtyard has magnificent geometric and pictorial decorations. The most important feature of the portal is the figurative decorations. Deer, sphinxes, birds, eagle, lion, dragon and other animal`s figure are placed between the swastika motifs making it a valuable piece of decoration.



Çardakhan Caravansary

Çardakhan Caravansary is located on the left side of the Denizli-Afyon highway in the center of Çardak. According to the inscription on the seven-line portal, Çardakhan was built by Esededdin Ayaz bin Abdullah el Şahabi who was the slave freed by Alaeddin Keykubat. Its construction was completed in 1230 in month of Ramadan. The Han consists of a large square courtyard, six sections and five-aisle hall. Han was known as Hanabat when it was part of Dinar County. During the War of Independence Çardakhan was used for grain storage.
 
 


Museums

      Hierapolis Archeological Museum

  
   The Roman Bath is the one of the largest construction of Hierapolis ancient city. Since 1984 this construction has served as the Hierapolis Archeology Museum. In addition to works of art in Hierapolis, there are works of art from such ancient cities of the Lycus (Çürüksu) valley as Laodikeia, Colossai, Tripolis, Attuda. There also are the beautiful archeological examples from Beycesultan Höyük of Bronze Age, which has a large and important section in the museum. Also some historical artifacts, which have surfaced in the Caria, Pisidia and Lydia regions collected and on display in Hierapolis Museum.
The three closed area of the Hierapolis Bath and library with gymnasium in eastern part of Museum are the exhibition space of museum. Museum consists of three closed section in which small and large works of art are exhibited. Marble and stone artifacts are exhibited in open area.



Statues and Sarcophagi Hall:
This room consists of sarcophagi, statues, gravestones, pedestals, pillars and inscriptions, which were obtained from Hierapolis and Laodikeia’s excavations. Artifacts inspired by Greek and Hellenistic originals which were executed in the Roman period include such statues as Tyche, Dionysos, Pan, Asklepios, Isis, Demeter and Triton. Tombstones symbolizing the local customs are constitute examples of the family tombs. Also sarcophagi terracotta represents the beautiful examples of that period.
The most valuable artifact in museum is the ‘Sidemara’ statue, which belongs to Arhon, who was the member of Town Council and found in Laodikeia ancient city. Also there is inscription about gladiator fights and bull games, which belongs to gmaeus Arrius Apuleius Aurelianus.



Small Finds Hall:
In this room generally small finds from several civilizations of the IV B.C are found. These Works are exhibited in chronological order also including artifacts from archeological site in and around Denizli. Works of art which are excavated from Beycesultan Höyük are also very important. The Works founded by The British Institute of Archeology’s excavation conducted between 1952-1957 years are as follows: idols, earthenware jugs, libation cups, seals and other stone artifacts.  Exhibited in other sections of the room are glass cups, necklaces, terracotta lamps, gemstones (ring, earrings, bracelets and etc.), which belong to Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods. Also displayed are golden earrings, golden rings and terracotta works of art which were found by Archaeologists of Denizli Museum on Gümüşler, İcikli and Akköy excavations. 
Also coins are the very important Works and are arranged in chronological order. There are gold, silver and bronze coins belonging to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine with Seljuk and Ottoman Empires periods.


Theatre Finds Hall: Decorative works of Hierapolis Theatre have been restored and exhibited in this hall. Some of the scene reliefs are in situ, but some were replaced by copies. Works in this hall: Mythological relief belonging to Apollo and Artemis, the delights of Dionysos, coronation of Roman Emperor Septimus Severus. There are Statues of Apollo, Leto, Artemis, Hades, Sphinxes, bust sculptures of King Attalos and Eumenes and architectural reliefs in the hall. Also there are inscriptions about the coronation of the goddess Hierapolis and Assembly resolutions related to theatre. In the middle part of the room are statues of Sphinx, Poseidon’s son Triton, Hades and Theatre actor. Displayed in the niche are Goddess Leto, Goddess Artemis and Goddess Apollo’s Statues.


        Denizli Atatürk and Ethnographical Museum

Building History: Museum is located on the 459 street in Saraylar district of Denizli. This construction was built at the end of the XIX century.
Double-storied construction consists of a central hall and rooms which open into the hall. The hall found upstairs opens to a balcony and to a section in the rear of the building, which was added later. The building is undecorated with a wiggle and groove design and wooden columns and molded covering . Before it was a party building and Great Leader Atatürk stayed here on his visit to Denizli in 4 February, 1931. The room in which Atatürk stayed is preserved with his baroque style desk, divan, brass bed and wardrobe that he used. One room is held as an example of Denizli family’s life style 30-40 years ago. There are beautiful examples of necklaces, weapons, clothes, Turkish works of art and etc.
After 1950 this building has furnished to services as Tuberculosis Dispensary. In 1977 building was registered by Ministry of Culture Affairs as memorial art and has been taken under protection.
After building’s restoration in 1 February 1984 of the building was opened as a museum. Building was damaged by the negative impact of time and architectural structures. At the end of 1997 was taken back for restoration. In 4 February 1999 has been put into service again.


Pamukkale Travertines

Travertine is a rock formed by the deposition of chemical reaction in various causes and conditions. Geological events constituting Pamukkale thermal waters affected a wide area. There are 17 hot water springs with temperatures ranging from 35 to 100C. Pamukkale thermal springs is a unit within the regional potential and have been used since ancient times.
The water’s temperature from the source is 35.6 C. The water includes calcium hydro carbonate in large quantities. When calcium hydro carbonate comes into contact with oxigen, carbon dioxide and carbonmonoxide escapes, calcium carbonate is precipitated and forms the travertine. The sediment looks like a gel in the first stage.
      

The chemical reaction is: Ca (HCO3) + O2  CaCO+CO2+CO+H2O.

Over time calcium carbonate hardens and becomes travertine. As a result of visitors walking and playing on on the travertines the calcium carbonate becomes crushed and disintegrated.
The travertines aren’t full of water every time as it’s seen on photos. The photos are taken, when the pools are full of water. Thermal water is given to travertine within a particular program. When the water flows on the same place for a long time causes pollution on the travertine. Weather conditions, heat dissipation and duration affect the whiteness formation. Sedimentation continues until carbon dioxide in the thermal water balanced with carbon dioxide within the air.
Travertines are constructed to attract tourists to thermal waters of Pamukkale. There are the artificial pools formed on the former road and the area of 5000 square meters established on the southern gate.




Pamukkale Hierapolis Ancient City

City is located 18 km north of Denizli. In archaeological literature Hierapolis called as a “Holy City” due to many temples and religious buildings. Hierapolis is located among various historical areas. According to Strabon and Ptolemaios who were the ancient geographers, Hierapolis was Frigya city near Laodikeia and Tripolis cities, which was in Karia’s border. From ancient sources there is no information about Hierapolis name before the Hellenistic Era. But is known that the city had a life before due to the Mother Goddess Cult.
We isnt enough information about the finding of Hierapolis but it’s known that city was founded in II century B.C. by the king of Pergamum, Eumenes II. The city was named in honor of Telephos’s wife Hiera, who was the Amazon’s Queen.
Hierapolis was completely destroyed by an earthquake during the reign of Roman Emperor Nero in 60 A.D. City was damaged during this time and was completely renovated. Hierapolis lost all Hellenistic characters and became a typical Roman city. Also Hierapolis was the important center in Byzantine period. Hierapolis became the Christian center in 80. A.D. ST. Philip who was apostle of Prophet Jesus was murdered here. Hierapolis was conquered by the Turks at the end of XII Century.

Frontinus Street: It was a main street of the city in I century A.D. In the middle of the street passed the sewage system covered with monolithic stones. Located here are shops, stores and houses on both sides of the street with a total length of 170 m. There are many places built in the late period (V-VI centuries) the width of street was reduced to 8 meters. Due to all sources of water, the surface of the street (platea) was covered with a layer of limestone (2 meters in height).



Agora:
After the earthquake which occurred in 60 A.D. Hierapolis Agora trades in area between Frontinus Street and eastern slopes of the hill. Before earthquake this area was used as necropolis and workshops. Found here were pottery ovens and embossed bowls of II B.C.- I A.D. centuries. In II century A.D. the largest agora was built in the Small Asia (170 m wide and 280 m in length). Since 1979 a systematic research is being conducted. As result of excavation the monumental area plans have been defined.


The North Byzantine Gate: The North Gate is dated at the end of IV A.D. In Byzantine times the North Gate constitutes the monumental entrance of the city. The gate was built with reused materials and supported by two square towers. On the either side of the entrance are standing lion, panther and 4 consoles decorated with the head of Gorgo in order to protect the ancient city from evil influence. 


The South Byzantine Gate:
Was built with reused materials in IV A.D.  It’s also supported by two square towers.







Gymnasium: Architectural features show that Gymnasium was built in I Century A.D. During this period after earthquake Apollo Temple and Frontinus Street was built.
 







Building with Triton Fountain: This building is one of the two biggest monumental buildings in the ancient city. Construction consists of a pool 70 meters in length and two folds niches were dug to put statues in this pool. Excavation which started in 1993 figurative and architectural elements belonging to this building was recovered. The most important are blocks and resources of Amazon amachia scene.


Lonic House: Ionic House is located on the secondary long road of the theatre. It was build in II A.D. The house belonged to one of the aristocratic families of the Domus city.  The house was named from the lon columns of the building. In IV century A.D. changes wee made to the house. To the east side of hall a visiting room was added.  Ionic House was destroyed by an earthquake in the first half of VII century A.D.


Latrina:
The building was destroyed by earthquake, but to day the ruins have been preserved. Latrina has been built in I century A.D. Inscriptions on the half columns, written in red dye to Emperor Justinianus are very important. They show the collapsing date of the building.
 





Apollo Temple:
The Temple of Apollo patron god and divine founder of the city. Terraces above the sanctuary are connected with the marble staircase. The religious center of the local people is the place where Apollo met the mother goddess. The Temple is dated back to I century A.D, but significant changes were made in III century A.D.



Water Channels and Nymphaeums:
Water channels distributed water to the city. Nymphaeum was built in IV century A.D.


Plutonium: An entrance to Plutonium on the right side of the Temple. There is a round aedicule on the top of entrance (I century A.D.), which points to the sanctity of this place. At the entrance of the cave streaming of under ground resources can be heard. The entrance is sealed off due to poisonius vapors emitted currently and in ancient time.   



City Walls:
City walls were built in V century A.D. on the north, south and east sides of the city. Placed are 24 square towers. Most of the walls have collapsed. There are 4 entrances, 2 monumental gates and two small gates. South and North Monumental Gates are opening to a main street.



Remains of Seljuk Medieval Castle:
The castle consists of a large wall system. Walls were built with blocks from the ruins of the city and with other rousted materials. In an excavation in one of the castle a door was founded, due to an earthquake wide splits on ceiling and floor can be seen. According to these materials the fortress dates between IX-XIII centuries. During this period there were conflicts between Byzantine and Seljuk.

Theater: This great structure has been built on four large blocks 91 meters high. Theater’s building started in the Flavius Era, but still not completed in the Hadrian Era. Theater was finally completed in the Severus Era in III century A.D. It was used until late Roman Period. Theater could hold 20 000 spectators and had reserved seating for prominent viewers in the front row. Today only 30 rows of seating have survived.










The Martyrion of St. Philipp:
It’s the most important Christian cult building of Hierapolis city. The Martyrion has been built by the palace architects of Constantinople in V century A.D. It’s a square building with an octagonal rotunda, which is 20 meters per side. There are Christian symbols in the blocks (cross in the star, khrismon and etc.). The building stores the remains of Apostle St. Philip.



The Bridge of St. Phillip:
It’s next to the door of St. Phillip. This great construction’s width is 12 m.  You can reach to the Martyrion of St. Phillip after crossing this bridge. The other octagonal construction is situated on the north side of the bridge (may be baptistery) and in the right side of this building is the stairs. The stairs end in the area where St. Phillip was buried. Until the period of Byzantine Emperor, this area was one of the most important pilgrimade areas in Small Asia.


Columnar Church: Was built in VII century A.D. Also there are small churches on the north side of Hierapolis which were built later. Churches built in V-VII centuries shows that Hierapolis was a big center during the Byzantine period also having a big importance within religious aspects. The first religious representative in Hierapolis was St. Phillip. 




Necropolis:
All sides of the city, except the travertine areas in the west, are the necropolis area. They can be seen on the roads, which go to Laodicea-Colossae on the south and to Tripolis-Sardis on the north. Limestone and marble were used in cemeteries. Marble in most cases used for the sarcophagi. The north Necropolis spans from the Late Hellenistic period to the early Christian period with sarcophagi, house-type cemeteries, tumulus-type cemeteries and monuments. These tombs are the most important parts of necropolis.



Bazalika Bath:
Located beside the Frontinus door. Bazalika bath was built in III century A.D.







Cathedral:
One of the most important Christian cult buildings of the Hierapolis city. The building is opened with plateiaya, narteks and atrium. The right door is opened to the baptism room. It’s rectangular, apsidal room, columns divided into 3 nefe. In the apsidal room is the baptismal boat. Cathedral was built in the first half of VI century A.D.




Great Bath Complex:
Marks indicate that inner walls of the building were covered with marble. Today massive walls and some vaults are still standing. The plans of the bath’s are typical to other Roman Baths. There is a large court at the entrance, halls on both sides, a rectangular covered area and bathing area. Two halls within the Palaestra (sports arena) were used for the Emperor and celebrations. Bath Complex was built in II century A.D.  Today the vaulted covered areas which are adjacent to the great hall are used as museum. 


Domitian Gate (Frontinus Gate):
This gate is well preserved in the city’s north entrance. There is an inscription written in Latin and Greek languages dedicating this gate to Emperor Domitian. It’s called Domitian Gate or Roman Gate because of this inscription. Gate was constructed in 82-83 A.D. This gate also called Frontinus Gate.




Laodikeia Ancient City


Laodikeia Ancient City’s Plan
Laodikeia is located on the south of the Lycus River, 6 km north of Denizli Province. From ancient sources the city’s name was “Laodikeia on the bank of the Lycos”. According to other ancient sources the city was founded by Antiochus II between 261-263 years B.C. The city was named in honor of Antiochus’s wife Laodice.


Laodikeia was the most famous and important city of Anatolia in I Century B.C. There are works of art in Laodikeia from this period. The Romans also gave importance to Laodikeia and made it the center of Kibyra’s Conventus (Gölhisar-Horzum). A series of coins were minted in city during the reign of Emperor Caracalla. By local inhabitants many monumental buildings were built in Laodikeia . One of the famous seven churches of Small Asia was built here showing how important Christianity was. In 60 A.D. city was destroyed by an earthquake.





Laodikeia’s Buildings
Big Theater
: Located northeast of the city. It was built accordingly to Grecian theater type and Roman building style. The stage is completely destroyed but cavea and orchestra are in quiet good condition. It’s approximately 20.000-seat.





Small Theater: It’s situated 300 m. northwest to Big Theater. This theatre also was built according to Grecian theater type and Roman building style. The stage is completely destroyed and obliteration in cavea and orchestra. It’s seating capacity is about 15.000.



Stadium and Gymnasium: They  are extended from southwest to an east-west direction of the city. The stadium was built in 79 A.D. It’s 350 m long, 60 m wide. Stadium was built in amphitheater style and has 24 rows of seats. Majority is destroyed. According to inscription found in ancient city the gymnasium was built by the proconsul Gargilius Antioius in II Century A.D. and dedicated to the Emperor Hadrianus and his wife Sabina.


Monumental Fountain: Located between the main and corner street of the city, being a roman style building. There are pools and niches. It was restored in Byzantine Period.







Council Building: The building is located on the southwest of the city. The construction is rectangular and extends in an east-west direction. The main entrance is on the east end.







Zeus Temple: 
Located on the east side of the columnar street, between the Small Theater and the Nympheum.








Big Church: Built on the south of the columnar street. Only one part of the ground floor remained. The main entrance is on the west side of Big Church.






Syrian Street: Photos











South Necropol: Photos













Rooster of Denizli

Denizli rooster is the symbol of Denizli. Rooster has been raised in Denizli since ancient times. Rooster’s color and body structure is harmonious with it long and beautiful crowing.
Rooster has black eyes, dark gray or purple legs, red or dark gray atrium. Sometimes on the wing feathers are brown colors. In the Al rooster is black-red mixture. Wight is approximately 3-3.5 kg.
There are 3 types of the Denizli rooster: according to their colors, habit and comb shapes. Roosters are classified into 6 types according to colors (Demirkır, Pamukkır, Kınalı, Al, Siyah and Kürklü), into 3 types according to character (Yüksek boyun, Sülün and Küpeli) and into 2 types according to combs (Geniş İbik and Dar İbik).
According to their crowing, Roosters are divided to 3 types: ‘Davudi’, ‘Bass’ and ‘Tenor’.
The crowing is divided to 4, according to body position in crowing time: ‘Lion’, ‘Wolf’, ‘Hero’ and ‘Haze’.
The appearance of the Denizli Roosters is as follows: long legs, long neck, strong chest, a broad and deep tail and stiff necked. Chicken also have the same characteristics. Denizli Rooster’s crowing period in the first year is 20-25 sec. In second and third years this crowing period gets longer.


Local Handcrafts

Traditional Handcrafts in Denizli are: weaving, wickerwork, leatherworking, production of earthenware such as water jug, glass, rope industry, copper works ironworks, comb works, packsaddle works, silver and thread works, needlework, wood works.

Weaving: The origin of weaving in Denizli is based to the ancient period. This basic work had improved after settlement of Turks on Çürüksu and Büyük Menderes Valleys.  Weaving generally made by women. Quality cotton, which was grown in Çürüksu lowland turned into yarn; this yarn was colored with dyes obtained from walnut leaves, onion peels, bonito, sumac, gall and from many herbs and roots and were weaved serge from the wool of sheep fed in the region.
The weaving is also popular in such districts as Buldan, Sarayköy, Babadağ, Tavas, Kızılcabölük and Kale. Especially Babadağ is famous with Kadıköy weavings and Buldan with its clothes.

Leatherworks: The art of leather is as old as weaving in Denizli region. This work had improved after settlement of Turkmen clans to Denizli region. In 1071 Turks seized the Honaz castle and they are laid the foundation of regional leatherworking there. Usually leather made on river’s areas are used in Honaz, Yeşilyuva and Narlıdere village of Buldan town which is specialized in boot and plate making. This art keeping its importance during the Ottoman period was developed into shoe, boot, weapon accessories and saddlery making. Animal harness was produced from leather. Black, red and yellow colored leather are perferred. Until recently, for women, young girls and brides elegant sequined and embroidered, snub nosed slippers in Hitit style were prepared.
 


Production of earthenware water jug and glass:
The production of earthenware water jug, glass and flowerpot has been produced in Serinhisar, Çivril, Tavas and Sarayköy towns from ancient years. Due to red soil in the region suitable for glass production has developed in these towns.



Rope Industry:
Rope Industry is developed in Serinhisar town. This work is usually conducted by women. Men usually market the produced ropes.






Copper works: 
Copper works is the one of the traditional handcrafts existing in Kaleiçi for centuries. Tableware, bowls, spoons, ladle, skimmer, trays, basins, stewpots, boilers and other kitchen goods are produced. Today copper Works are only produced for tourists.



Cutlery works: Ironworks has existed in Yatağan town of Serinhisar district since the founding of Yatağan town together cutlery art also developed. Materials such as cutlery, knives, axes, scissors, blade are also produced. Products are sent all around the country.


Wicker works: Wicker is woven with reed retreived from Çardak-Beylerli, Buldan-Süleymanlı, Çivril-Gümüşsuyu region’s lakes. Productions such as ‘Holiday cover’, which is used in bench and ‘Roof cover’. 
   






Ironworks: Iron art has been going on for centuries. In the old Kaleiçi bazaar can be found ‘BlackSmiths’ section.


Silver and Thread works: The silver works is made in small home workshops in Beyköyü village of Çivril district. You can see rings, earrings and other silver works here. Tread works is also widespread only in Tavas district.





Needlework:
Made by women and in all regions of Denizli. Especially embroideries are made for sale in Tavas district.







Woodworks:
Wood works is more widespread in forest ranges, in villages of Çameli, Tavas, Baklan towns.


Comb works: Woman comb have been produced in Yatağan town from buffalo’s and ram’s horns. Combs are made in two types: the anchor-toothed comb and dense comb. One side of comb is fine-toothed, but other side is thick-toothed.





Hand made glassmaking:
In hand made productions the human intelligence is combined with manual skill. Denizli Glass carries on the glassmaking tradition in Turkey. The company has a leading position in Turkey and in the world for the production of hand made glass-ware.






Hand printed/painted Works:
Cloth that has been painted or printed by hand. Hand printed/painted Works is a branch of handcraft in our province.





Decorative Pattern:
Craft masters are preparing decorative patterns in our province. Patterns are prepared to decorate bags, tablecloths, pillowcases and etc.

Phaeton manufacturing: Phaeton manufacturing is a part of handcraft in our province. It’s used in tourist regions.

Marbling art: Marbling art has an important place in our country. There are examples of the marbling art in Denizli.

Authentic Slippers manufacturing: These slippers produced in our province are used in shows, folk dances and other tourist areas.


Carpet weaving: Carpet weaving continues with the traditional methods from past to present. Also there are handcraft carpet shops in Cankurtaran town and on Pamukkale highway. 
 








Folklore
   
Neighboring province’s Folk Music and Dances have affected Denizli’s Folk Music and Folk Dances. On the one hand they are affected by Aydın and Muğla’s slow Zeybek Folk Dance, in other hand affected by Teke district’s fast music and dance.

Folk Music

Kerem, Garipler, Misket melodies are created the original music structure of Denizli region. The rhythm of Denizli folk music is nine beat. Saz is widespread in Denizli region. Saz types, such as divan, bağlama, tambur, cura are common in region. There are Kabak violins of different sizes. Prevalent wind instruments are zurna, sipsi, whistle and etc. Zil, leğen, kaşık, tef and drum are percussion instruments of Denizli region.


Traditional Folk Dances

Zeybek dances are very popular in Denizli. It’s very rich and important folk source of the region with own instruments and music. Zeybek in other places is danced with drum-clarinet or drum-zurna, but in its hometown is danced with saz and tabor. 

Men Dances in Denizli: Dances performed by men are named ‘Efe Dance’. This is one of the Zeybek Dances types. Tavas Zeybeği, Çal Feraisi, Acıpayam Zeybeği, Harmandalı, Çivril Zeybeği, Kerimoğlu Zeybeği are among them.

Women Dances in Denizli: This dance’s named ‘Kız Oyunu’. Other are: Keten Gömlek, Düz Oyun, Çameli. Generally women dance with such musical instruments as drum, def (a tambourine with jingle), leğen (washtub), cümbüş (a mandolin with a metal body).


Local Dress

Differences in dress can be seen in various regions of the province. Women’s dress features: Woman’s clothing has remained almost the same in Acıpayam, Tavas and Çameli towns. Generally women wear baggy and elastic trousers. On their head women wear a fez with coins in front. The fez is covered by head-scarf. Dresses are sewn from colorful fabrics. Headscarfs are white or colored crepe. In Güney and Buldan regions women wear long dresses and wrap waist clothes around their waists. Waist cloth is made of cotton, striped and colorful. Waist cloth, which is worn in weddings is made of silk are colorful and flat pattern. In the same regions women wear long trousers, which consist of layers of different fabrics.
Çal, Çivril women usually wear three skirt (üç etek) of colored fabrics, baggy trousers and fez decorated with coins. 
 



Legends

Pamukkale Legend: People have been told the story about woodcutter’s daughter for centuries. Many years ago there was a poor woodcutter family. They lived on the slopes of Çökelez Mount. The daughter of this family was so ugly that mothers with son`s would change their paths when they saw her. She didn’t care about her poverty, but her ugliness made her very unhappy. One day she threw herself from the slope of the mountain.
She fell into the pool, which was full of thermal water and mud. She lied in the thermal water unconscious for a long time. During that time the power of the water made her very beautiful. The son of Denizli Governor passed by and saw the beautiful girl with wounds. He took woodcutter’s daughter to his house by horse. The beautiful girlrecovered and then they celebrated their marriage. From that day onwards women began to come to thermal water to become more beautiful.

Bride’s Desire Rock: Many years ago a very beautiful girl fell in love with a shepherd. But unfortunately governor’s son was also in love with her. One day she was carrying food to the shepherd. She saw that governor’s son was following her. The girl understood what would happen. She started to pray to a God, to help her to marry only the shepherd. ‘If not, turn me into a rock’. God accepted her prayer and she turned into a rock with her horse.
After that day ladies that are married come to this rock, which is located in Karahayit town and pray to God to have a happy. 



Local Cuisine

Traditional foods and eating habits in Denizli continue to this day. The local soups are generally tarhana soup, kedi borulce soup, mercimek (red lentil) soup, domates (tomato) soup, ovmac soup. Tas kapama, kumbar dolma, sirkeli et (vinegar meat), nohutlu et (chickpea meat), tandır (tandoor), kol dolma, ciğer sarma, sacta işkembe (tribe on hot plate) are the meat dishes of Denizli kitshen.
Vegetarian foods are very widespread in Denizli region. Especially there are various eggplant dishes such as stuffed eggplant, aubergine pancakes and etc. Also fresh salads are very common.
Pies and desserts are typically Aegean. Phyllo, home made dough are made at home. In winter maize, walnuts, chestnuts; in summer fruits such as cucumber, melons, watermelons are eaten.

Breakfast Culture in Denizli

Denizli’s breakfast consists of tea, boiled egg, fried potatoes, walnut honey, fresh cream and onions, garlic and tomatoes roasted in olive oil. 
 






Local Cuisine


DENİZLİ KEBAB:
 
First of all the oven must be tempered. Lamb divided into 4 parts: fore arm, shovel, rib and loin. Rear leg is cooked with own oil. Skewer a piece of meat successively. Between forearm, rib and shovel put pieces of lamb’s tail. Don’t put grease on the loin because own oil is enough.
On the right side of the oven placed 2 tinned copper pans approximately 50 cm in diameter. First shovel, loin, then fore arm and rib are placed from the right corner of the oven. 
Kebab is eaten by hand, because first Denizli Kebab was served with hand, by the first master. This procedure has become tradition.
Tomato and onion is served with Denizli Kebab and also eaten by hands. 
 

STEW IN TERRACOTA POT 
Ingredients:
1 kg meat
2 green peppers
2 onions
2 cloves garlic
3 tomatoes
1 tablespoon chili paste
1 tablespoon butter
Salt, black pepper, thyme and oil to taste

Meat and onions are fryed in oil. Green peppers and other ingredients are added with butter after. Then replace it into a terracotta pot. Add 1 cup water and cover it. Stew (Güveç) is cooked in oven for 1 hour in 200 degree. Serve hot with salad, bulgur pilaf or cacık.
 


ALAÇORA :

Put butter and wheat on the boiled haricot beans. Then add salt, pepper and water. Simmer it until all the water is absorbed.


CORN BREAD  

Corn flour is kneaded with water and salt. Then it’s cooked on a hot plate (saç). It’s eaten with butter and cheese.









AYRAN (DOGRAMEC) 

Yogurt beaten with water and pinch of salt. Corn bread chopped into and it’s eaten with a spoon. It’s also delicious with hot pepper and tomato salad.


TİRİT
Wheat, corn, beans, chickpeas and beans are boiled. Red pepper, black pepper, salt is added and boiled. Put almond, walnut or hazelnut on it. Place on a serving dish and serve.


DENİZLİ PICKLE   
Put peppers, green beans, cucumbers, tomatoes in a tin. Then add salty vinegar or citric acid.  Put peeled garlic into. Close it tightly. Some time later, the pickle is ready.







GINDIRA SOUP
  
Boil gındıra (a kind of herb) in hot water. After boiling, take away the shell. Add oil-fried onions to the boiled water. Moreover, plum, sour and salt is added. Then simmer for 10 minutes. Gındıra soup is cooked in Çameli district and vitamin C is abundant.


LAYER (Katmer)

Ingredients:
Flour
Cheese
Onion
Oil
Sesame

Flour is kneaded. It may be prepared with cheese or sesame. Put stuffing on the dough, oil it and cook on a hot plate.
Serve hot with tea or ayran.


Local Desserts


MOLASSES FLOUR HELVA

Ingredients:
1 Water Glass Oil
2 Water Glass Flour
1 Water Glass Molasses
1 Tea Cup beaten walnut

Heat the oil in a saucepan very gently. Add the flour to the oil and fry it. When the flour turns light golden, add molasses slowly to the saucepan with flour and mix it. The mixture is formed into pieces. Add crumbed walnuts. Serve cold.
 

AŞURE

Ingredients:
1 Water Glass Wheat
1 Tea Cup Chickpea
1 Tea Cup Bean
1 Tea Cup Black-Eyed Pea
4 Water Glass Sugar
1 Tea Cup Almond 
1 Tea Cup Walnut
1 Tea Cup Pistachio
1 Tea Cup Dried Apricots
 1 Tea Cup Grape
1 Tablespoon Nigella Sativa
½ Tea Cup Celtis

Boil the wheat, separately boil chickpeas, beans and black-eyed peas. Add sugar on the wheat and boil it. Then add chickpea, bean and black-eyed pea to the mixture. After cooking the other ingredients are added and mixed.
Serve warm.

 

PUMPKIN DESSERT  

Ingredients:
1 kg. Pumpkin
500 gr. Sugar
5 Cloves


Clean the pumpkin inside and out. Cut it into matchbox like pieces. Put in rows in a pot. Sprinkle sugar between each row. Add cloves on it. Simmer for about 30 minutes. After cooling, sprinkle walnuts. Serve cold. 

Akashi      
Inge Dessert     
Emigrant Cake    
Black Halva     
Crunchy Helva    
Shepherd Emulsion    
Bulambaç
Sweet Pastry     
Telem Helva     
Tavas Baklava    



 

Source: Information content of this page are taken from Directorate of Culture and Tourism of Denizli  (www.pamukkale.gov.tr)